A network consists of different systems that are linked together and can exchange data with each other. With large internet providers and hosting companies, this exchange of data is done by means of light. The system used for this is called optical telecommunication, better known as fiber. The advantage of optical fiber is that there is no theoretical limit in the bandwidth and speed of the data stream. Many and very fast data can be communicated internally. Only the bottleneck in this system is the equipment that has to send the data; the routers and switches.
The use of fiberglass in a home is actually superfluous. For example, if you have connected a media server to your television and want to stream an 8K resolution film on it, then the required bandwidth is ‘only’ 100 Mbit / s. While a copper Cat5 cable can achieve a bandwidth of 1000 Mbit / s. For this reason, and the relatively high purchase costs of fiber optics, a Cat5 or Cat6 cable is often used in homes. The big difference between Cat5 and Cat6 cables is the amount of data that can be sent. Cat6 has a higher bandwidth compared to Cat5. You can compare this with a water pipe: If you have a wide water pipe, more water can flow through it compared to a narrower water pipe.